Counties with lower insurance coverage are associated with both slower vaccine rollout and higher COVID-19 incidence across the United States

August 31 2021

Efficient and equitable vaccination distribution is a priority for effectively outcompeting the transmission of COVID-19 globally. A recent study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified that US counties with high social vulnerability according to metrics such as poverty, unemployment, low income, and no high school diploma, have significantly lower rates of vaccination compared to the national average. Here, we build upon this analysis to consider associations between county-level vaccination rates and 68 different demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental factors for 1,510 American counties with over 228 million individuals for which vaccination data was also available. Our analysis reveals that counties with high levels of uninsured individuals have significantly lower COVID-19 vaccination rates (Spearman correlation: -0.264), despite the fact that the CDC has mandated that all COVID-19 vaccines are free and cannot be denied to anyone based upon health insurance coverage or immigration status. Furthermore, we find that the counties with high levels of uninsured individuals tend to have the highest COVID-19 incidence rates in March 2021 relative to December 2020 (Spearman correlation: 0.388). Among the 68 factors analyzed, insurance coverage is the only factor which is highly correlated with both vaccination rate and change in COVID-19 incidence during the vaccination period (|Spearman correlation| > 0.25). We also find that counties with higher percentages of Black and Hispanic individuals have significantly lower vaccination rates (Spearman correlations: -0.128, -0.136) and lesser declines of COVID-incidence rates (Spearman correlations: 0.334, 0.330) during the vaccination period. Surprisingly however, after controlling for race, we find that the association between lack of insurance coverage and vaccination rate as well as COVID-19 incidence rates is largely driven by counties with a majority white population. Among the counties with high proportions of white residents (top 10% decile), the association between insurance coverage and vaccination rate is significant (Spearman correlation: -0.210, p-value: 0.002), but among counties with low proportions of white residents (bottom 10% decile) this association is not significant (Spearman correlation: 0.072, p-value: 0.088). Taken together, this study highlights the fact that intricate socioeconomic factors are correlated not just to COVID-19 vaccination rates, but also to COVID-19 incidence fluctuations, underscoring the need to improve COVID-19 vaccination campaigns in marginalized communities. The strong positive correlation between low levels of health insurance coverage and low vaccination rates is particularly concerning, and calls for improved public health messaging to emphasize the fact that health insurance is not required to be eligible for any of the FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines in the United States.


Emily Lindemer, Mayank Choudhary, Gregory Donadio, Colin Pawlowski, Venky Soundararajan

nference, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA

Mayo Clinic


Correspondence to:

Colin Pawlowski (, Venky Soundararajan (